National: 161 Defenders and 40 Journalists Murdered in Last Presidential Term of Office

December 14, 2018


On November 29th, at a press conference in Mexico City, the Network All Rights for All (Red TdT in its Spanish acronym) reported that during the administration of Enrique Peña Nieto (December 2012-November 2018), 161 defenders and 40 journalists were murdered with impunity. “This demonstrates conclusively that the six-year term of office that ended was lethal for dissenting voices: painful data, which become lives torn apart for a country that is democratic and that, officially, is not at war,” it stressed.

In its report “From Memory … Hope”, the Tdt Network stressed that only 3% of the cases of murdered defenders are judged and that these investigations “often ignore their activity as the cause of the murder.” 42 of the defenders belonged to an indigenous people. 40% of the people killed were community defenders, and most of them were working for the defense of Economic, Social, Cultural and Environmental Rights (ESCE) and of the Earth and the territory. 19 were women and three were trans. The most dangerous states were Guerrero (28% of cases), Oaxaca (20%) and Chihuahua (11%).

The Tdt Network denounced that the response of the Mexican State to this situation “has been limited to the action of the Protection Mechanism for Defenders and Journalists operated by the Ministry of the Interior, which has only reactive measures and does not obey the specific needs of the beneficiaries. This year, even, the Trust that endows the Mechanism with resources ran out of resources, putting 727 defenders and journalists at greater risk.”

It proposed that the struggle of all these defenders “was interrupted in a violent way, but not their ideals and convictions, not their dreams or the memory of their just struggle for a different world. There lies the hope. In all those people who during these six years and still now persist in the defense of human rights, in this service for life. The hope is in the learning, achievements and seeds sowed of those people who, although they are no longer there, continue to be present in their fighting and dignified spirit.”

For more information in Spanish:

161 personas defensoras de DH asesinadas en sexenio que termina, sembradores de esperanza: Red TDT (Red Tdt, 29 de noviembre de 2018)

Red TDT: 161 defensores de derechos y 40 periodistas asesinados en el sexenio (Proceso, 29 de noviembre de 2018)

En el actual sexenio, 161 defensores fueron asesinados en México (El Imparcial, 29 de noviembre de 2018)

Con Peña, 161 defensores de derechos humanos y 40 periodistas asesinados: Red TDT (30 de noviembre de 2018)

For more information from SIPAZ:

National/International: “The Time is Now, Effective Public Policies for the Right to Defend Human Rights” Report Published  (October 30th, 2018)

National: Federal Mechanism for Journalists and Defenders without Funding (October 14th, 2018)

National: Defenders and Journalists Denounce Insufficient Resources for Continuity of Protection Mechanism (September 26th, 2018)

National: UN-DH urges Mexico to guarantee resources for the protection of journalists and human rights defenders (September 17th, 2018)

National/International: International organizations call Mechanism for Protection for Human-Rights Defenders and Journalists into question (May 16th, 2015)


Guerrero/National/International: CNDH and IACHR Ayotzinapa Reports

December 14, 2018

AyotziAyotzinapa at Tlachinollan anniversary(@SIPAZ)

On November 27th, three days before the end of the six-year term of office of Enrique Peña Nieto, the president of the National Commission of Human Rights (CNDH in its Spanish acronym), Luis Raul Gonzalez Perez, presented recommendation 15VG/2018 on the events that took place in September 2014, in Iguala, Guerrero, that caused the forced disappearance of 43 students from the Normal Rural School of Ayotzinapa, the death of six people and 42 more wounded. He considered it as a “point of departure and a clear guide to what remains to be done” so that the next government of Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador will get truth and justice in the case.

At a press conference, he said that, “what happened in Iguala should not be seen as an isolated case, but as a reflection of the situation that covers several regions of the country, and in which the possibility of generating an episode of similar dimensions and characteristics is a latent risk.”

He stressed that “a crime of the dimensions that happened in Iguala could only occur because of the penetration of organized crime in government structures”, while “various authorities, at federal, local and municipal levels, knew that things were rotten and contaminated, but nobody did anything. This would have prevented an outcome like the one that happened.”

He indicated that the investigation showed “that the authorities violated the right to the truth of the victims and of society when formulating or disseminating biased statements or partial or false information, which disorientated, confused and generated uncertainty in public opinion, causing the victims to be victimized again.”

On another note, two years after the Special Follow-up Mechanism was installed, this body of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) presented its final work report, in which it analyzes the main anomalies, deficiencies and omissions detected in the investigation conducted by the Mexican government. It concludes that “despite all the proceedings contained in a dossier of more than 618 volumes, the investigations continue fragmented, and require a comprehensive analysis (…) many of the proceedings seem to be incomplete, are discarded or fail to be procedurally driven.” The IACHR also expressed its concern at the fact that “there is still no change in the official narrative regarding the line of investigation of the Cocula landfill, despite what has been indicated by this Commission, by the Interdisciplinary Group of Independent Experts (IGIE), the Office of the High Commissioner of the United Nations for Human Rights (UNHCHR) and the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team (AFAT).” It urged the Mexican State “to redouble the efforts to determine the whereabouts of the student teachers, to know the truth of what happened on the night of September 26th and 27th, 2014, to provide comprehensive assistance to families and to ensure that these atrocious events do happen again”.

For more information in Spanish:

RECOMENDACIÓN No. 15VG/2018 « Caso Iguala » (CNDH, 28 de noviembre de 2018)

Toca a AMLO enderezar investigación por caso Ayotzinapa: CNDH al emitir recomendación a Peña (Proceso, 28 de noviembre de 2018)

La CNDH revive “versión histórica” de la PGR en caso Iguala: mínimo 19 personas calcinadas en Cocula (Proceso, 28 de noviembre de 2018)

La CNDH señala que autoridades violaron el derecho a la verdad en el caso Iguala (ADN Politico, 28 de noviembre de 2018)

Informe Final: Mecanismo de Seguimiento al Asunto Ayotzinapa (CIDH, 25 de noviembre de 2018)

Profundizar investigación a militares y policías por caso Ayotzinapa, recomienda CIDH (Informe) (Aristegui Noticias, 28 de noviembre de 2018)

Sin identificar, 19 calcinados en basurero de Cocula: CNDH (La Jornada, 29 de noviembre de 2018)

Caso Ayotzinapa: la CIDH detecta más indicios de federales y militares en ataque a normalistas⁩ (Animal Político, 29 de noviembre de 2018)

Caso Ayotzinapa aún incompleto y sin detención de involucrados: CIDH (Vanguardia, 29 de noviembre de 2018)

Incompleta y fragmentada la “versión histórica” del caso Ayotzinapa; CIDH pide desecharla (Proceso, 29 de noviembre de 2018)

For more information from SIPAZ:

Guerrero/National: Ayotzinapa, Four Years On…  (October 1st, 2018)

Guerrero/National: Incoming Government Confirms Creation of Truth Commission for Ayotzinapa Case (Aug. 13th, 12018)

Guerrero/National: Obstruction in Formation of Truth Commission in Ayotzinapa Case Denounced (Aug. 8th, 2018)Guerrero: Classmates of Ayotzinapa 43 Graduate

Guerrero: Classmates of Ayotzinapa 43 Graduate (Aug. 2nd, 2018)

Guerrero/National: Federal Court Orders Creation Truth Commission to Reopen Investigation of Ayotzinapa Case (July 12th, 2018)

Guerrero/Nacional : CNDH informa que se tiene a un preso inocente por el caso Ayotzinapa (22 de junio de 2018)

Guerrero/Nacional/Internacional : Llamados a redigirir investigación en el caso Ayotzinapa (14 de junio de 2018)


National/International: Marches for International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women

December 13, 2018


On November 25th, as part of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, activities were held throughout the world as well as in several states of Mexico. This day was first promoted by the United Nations (UN) in 2009 to highlight the fact that “violence against women and girls is one of the most widespread, persistent and devastating human rights violations in the world today and that it is barely reported due to the impunity enjoyed by the perpetrators, and the silence, stigmatization and shame suffered by the victims.” The motto this year was “Orange the World: #HearMeToo”, calling on public opinion to “listen and believe the survivors, to put an end to the culture of silence and that our response be focused on survivors.”

In Mexico, marches were held in eight states. In Oaxaca, two years after the inauguration of Governor Alejandro Murat Hinojosa, women not only marched in the capital but also blocked the entry of the State Attorney General, criticizing that “nothing has changed” and “the simulation in the implementation of the gender alert, by not seeking justice, or attending to the victims.” According to the Consortium for Parliamentary Dialogue and Equity, femicide rates in Oaxaca have increased to 235 up to November 23rd, a fact that shows that “violence increases every day.”

In Guerrero, the protests of organizations, artists, journalists and social activists focused on the case of Valentina Rosendo Cantu with actions that began the day and will continue until December 10th, Human Rights Day. Valentina obtained a sentence against the military that raped and tortured her in July 2002 and continues to defend the rights of women in Guerrero. However, the “State is no guarantee to safeguard our rights,” said the Montaña Tlachinollan Human Rights Center, speaking of “an average of 4.5 cases [of femicides] per month” and that “this escalation of violence against us occurs in the middle of public thoroughfare, the perpetrators shoot their weapons without fear of being arrested and investigated.”

In San Cristobal de Las Casas, Chiapas, a march was also held that closed the Sixth Assembly of the Movement in Defense of the Land, the Territory and for the Participation and Recognition of Women in Decisions. In their pronouncement, they demanded that the government “guarantee our right to land and participation in decision-making without mediation and without violence.” According to the Center for Women’s Rights (CDMCh in its Spanish acronym), there were “95 known cases of serious violence against women in Chiapas” between January and July 2018. Since 2015, Chiapas ranks “third place nationwide with the most violence against women.”

For more information in Spanish:

Por qué debemos eliminar la violencia contra la mujer (ONU)

Mensaje de la Secretaria General Adjunta de la ONU y Directora Ejecutiva de ONU Mujeres, 2018 (ONU)

Marchas en ocho entidades para erradicar la violencia contra mujeres (La Jornada, 26 de noviembre de 2018)

Feministas clausuran Fiscalía General de Oaxaca por su desatención a víctimas (Video) (La Minuta, 26 de noviembre de 2018)

Contra la violencia de género… a costa de nuestra vida (El Sur, 26 de noviembre de 2018)

Pronunciamiento 25 de noviembre “Día Internacional por la Eliminación de la Violencia en contra de las mujeres y niñas” (La Bridaga Feminista Lucero, 24 de noviembre de 2018)

Pronunciamiento del Movimiento en Defensa de la Tierra, el Territorio, por la Participación y el Reconocimiento de las Mujeres en las Decisiones (25 de noviembre de 2018)

Violencia contra Mujeres y Feminicidios en Chiapas (CDMCh, 25 de noviembre de 2018)

For more information from SIPAZ:

National/International: “Green Tide” – Activists March for Free and Safe Abortion; Threatened across Republic (October 9th, 2018)

Oaxaca: Nine Femicides after 28 Days of Gender Violence Alert – Some Municipalities Yet to Implement Declaration (Oct. 2nd, 2018)

Oaxaca: Segob decrees Gender Violence Alert in Oaxaca for unfullfillment of governor Murat  (Sept. 18th, 2018)

Nacional : OSC denuncian omisiones en investigación y combate a feminicidios (Aug.16th, 2018)

National/International: “Final Observations on the Ninth Periodic Report from Mexico, the Convention for the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women” Published  (August 6th, 2018)

Chiapas : Reunión de evaluación de la Alerta de Violencia de Género sin participación de las organizaciones peticionarias (June 19th, 2018)

Guerrero: Femicides Rocket Despite Gender Violence Alert (July 12th, 2018)

Guerrero: Femicides on the Rise in 2017 (Jan. 26th, 2018)

Oaxaca: Special Comission to Investigate Femicidal Violence Set Up after Delays  (January 24th, 2018)


National: Faced with Rejection of National Guard, AMLO Proposes New Consultation

December 12, 2018

Guard.png@Guillermo Solguren, La Jornada

On November 21st, President-elect Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador (AMLO) reported that on March 21st the formation of the National Guard, in addition to asking about the possibility of trial of former presidents for alleged acts of corruption and on the formation of the business advisory board will be tentatively put to consultation. He said that this consultation would take place until this date so that the amendment to Article 35 of the constitution is approved, which would allow the National Electoral Institute (INE in its Spanish acronym) to organize it.

Since the presentation of the security plan of the next government and what would be the National Guard, national and international organizations have questioned this option. “Lopez Obrador commits a colossal error that could thwart any hope of ending the atrocities that have caused so much suffering in Mexico in recent years,” Human Rights Watch said, referring to allegations of human rights violations committed by the military that have been occurring since 2006 (such as extrajudicial executions, torture and disappearance of people). “Lopez Obrador should commit to improving the country’s civilian police forces, a task that, however complex, is essential to sustainably end the violence and abuses that have proliferated in Mexico,” it said.

“It is extremely serious that the next federal government is committed to a militarized security model, as announced last week with the proposal to create a National Guard,” the National Network of Civil Human Rights Organizations said. All Rights for All” (TDT Network, made up of 87 organizations in 23 states of the Republic), expressed its “great concern” over “the political speed and inconsistency” with which the deputies of MORENA have presented various initiatives for constitutional reform that would allow the creation of the National Guard: “Even more so than the binned Law of Internal Security, the new initiative intends to raise military participation in public security tasks to constitutional rank, as it seeks to attach elements of the Secretariats of National Defense and the Navy to this institution in the work of public security and procurement of justice. In addition to this, its organic link with the Public Ministry puts at risk the advances that the model of delivery of justice is having in Mexico.”

On another note, a letter endorsed by 128 groups and 544 people, organized by Common Cause, makes a strong and urgent call to the president-elect to stop the constitutional reform announced to integrate the National Guard and opt, instead, for the development and strengthening of civilian security institutions. The text supports the reinforcement of the Federal Police, since although it is admitted that “it was abandoned during recent years, it considers that it has research, technological and operative capacities that allow contemplating a civil option for the attention of high impact crimes.”

AMLO, for his part, says he made this decision because the police bodies have no capacity to guarantee the country’s security. “The fact that the National Guard is attached to SEDENA in operational terms does not mean that the military personnel are responsible for security,” he says. “They will have a training process different from the military one, training to perform the tasks of public security,” including topics on the new criminal justice system and respect for human rights among others, he said.

For more information in Spanish:

AMLO prevé consultar en marzo sobre Guardia Nacional, juicio a expresidentes y consejo empresarial (Proceso, 22 de noviembre de 2018)

AMLO anuncia consulta sobre juicio a expresidentes, la Guardia Nacional y el consejo empresarial (Animal Político, 21 de noviembre de 2018)

Organizaciones de DH cuestionan plan de seguridad militar de AMLO (La Jornada, 20 de noviembre de 2018)

AMLO: las críticas al controvertido plan de seguridad en México presentado por López Obrador (BBC, 20 de noviembre de 2018)

ONGs y especialistas piden a AMLO dar marcha atrás en Guardia Nacional (Forbes, 20 de noviembre de 2018)

Guardia Nacional, el gran error de AMLO (Sin Embargo, 19 de noviembre de 2018)

For more information from SIPAZ:

National: Supreme Court Invalidates Security Law; AMLO Announces National Peace and Security Plan 2018-2024  (November 27th, 2018)

National: CNDH Asks SCJN to Declare Interior Security Law Unconstitutional (November 7th, 2018)

National: Reactions to Minister for Supreme Court’s Proposal on Interior Security Law (November 7th, 2018)

National: AMLO “The Army and the Navy will continue on the streets in internal public security tasks” (September 15, 2018)


National/International: First Migrant Caravans Reach US Border

November 28, 2018

MigrantsMigrant Caravan arrives in Tijuana (@Animal Político)

In mid-November, the first contingents of caravans of Central American migrants who arrived in Mexico last month with the aim of reaching the border with the United States began arriving in Tijuana.

“I do not dare to describe them as migrants (…) They are a bunch of vagrants and marijuana users,” said Tijuana mayor Juan Manuel Gastelum on their arrival, complaining to the media that the Mexican government “has not done its job” and that “the tranquility and security of Tijuana is being affected.” On November 14th, there was also an altercation between neighbors of Playas de Tijuana and Central Americans who had settled in that area of ​​the city. “Go away, go away!” some neighbors shouted.

They arrived in buses that have allowed them to cover a distance of more than 2,000 kilometers in a few days as the state governments of the so-called “Pacific Route” (Jalisco, Nayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora), have accelerated the transit of migrants so that they did not remain in their states. The organization Pueblos Sin Fronteras expressed its concern over the integrity of the members of the caravan since they did not have access to water or food on trips of up to 48 hours by bus.

Even having arrived at the border, the uncertainty about the future of the caravan and those that are still on the way (which would still represent 6,000 more people) is maintained because although the objective of the migrants is for the US government to grant them refugee status due to the extreme violence and poverty living in their countries, to achieve this they must cross the border through official access, in accordance with a decree signed the previous week by President Donald Trump. By using unauthorized entry points, Central American migrants would be arrested, which would make them ineligible to remain in the country or seek asylum.

The Mexican secretary of the Interior, Alfonso Navarrete Prida, affirmed that the possibilities of entering the United States are “practically nil” and assured that the Mexican government will seek to prevent them from entering the country by force: “There is a huge risk of have an incident on the border line, when we have also heard the openly hostile speech of the US government,” he explained.

For more information in Spanish:

Integrantes de la segunda caravana migrante enfilan rumbo a Irapuato (Proceso, 17 de noviembre de 2018)

El alcalde de Tijuana arremete contra la caravana de emigrantes (El País, 17 de noviembre de 2018)

Cerca de 2.000 migrantes centroamericanos están en frontera México-EE.UU. (VO Noticias, 16 de noviembre de 2018)

Tijuana prepara plan para recibir a migrantes de caravanas (CNN México, 16 de noviembre de 2018)

Segunda caravana migrante se dirige hacia Querétaro (La Jornada, 16 de noviembre de 2018)

Grupo de migrantes centroamericanos llegó a Tijuana; vecinos de la zona protestaron por su presencia (Animal Político, 15 de noviembre de 2018)

Caravana de migrantes: Trump endurece las reglas de solicitud de asilo para los que crucen a Estados Unidos desde México (BBC, 9 de noviembre de 2018)


For more information from SIPAZ:





Nacional/Internacional : México, ¿filtro migratorio ? (15 de septiembre de 2018)

National / International: First Migrant Caravan advances in Mexico; a person dies in the second caravan trying to enter; Trump announces operation «Faithful Patriot» to close US border (November 3, 2018)

Chiapas / National / International: Migrant Caravan about to enter Oaxaca (November 3, 2018)

Chiapas/Nacional/Internacional : actualización sobre los avances del Éxodo migrante en México (25 de octubre de 2018)

National / International: Caravan of migrants from Honduras arrives in Mexico (October 22, 2018)

National / International: Mexico, migration filter? (September 21st, 2018)

International/ National: Teargas and Rubber Bullets Used Against Migrants at U.S. Mexico Border

November 27, 2018

(@Ramon Espinosa / Associated Press)

November 25, 2018, Tijuana- U.S. Border patrol agents fired tear gas and rubber bullets at migrants after individuals threw rocks at border agents and attempted to enter the United States.

Children and adults fainted from the effects of tear gas, as hundreds of peaceful protesters were caught in the violence.

A peaceful protest in response to the slow processing of asylum requests was being held next to the border by migrants that day. Mexican federal police attempted to break up the protest and detained dozens of migrants. U.S. Border patrol agents detained individuals who attempted to cross the border. In response to the attempted crossings, the U.S. closed the San Ysidro border crossing between San Diego and Tijuana for hours.

It is unclear what level of coordination there was and is between U.S. and Mexican authorities in response to the caravan, but there appears to be some level of cooperation between the law enforcement agencies.

U.S. President Donald Trump took advantage of the days events to push his narrative of the caravans as “an invasion”, calling migrants “stone cold criminals” on twitter.

Meanwhile, at least 4,700 migrants from Central America are sheltered in a sports complex in the city of Tijuana, where negative sentiment against migrants appears to be growing.


For more information in Spanish:

Estados Unidos rocía gases en territorio mexicano para contener a migrantes (En El Camino, 26 de noviembre de 2018)

EU arrestó a 42 migrantes tras incidente fronterizo (La Jornada, 26 de noviembre de 2018)

Protestan en Tijuana contra los migrantes hondureños (La Prensa, 18 de noviembre de 2018)

For more information from SIPAZ:

National / International: First Migrant Caravan advances in Mexico; a person dies in the second caravan trying to enter; Trump announces operation «Faithful Patriot» to close US border (November 3, 2018)

Chiapas / National / International: Migrant Caravan about to enter Oaxaca (November 3, 2018)

National / International: Caravan of migrants from Honduras arrives in Mexico (October 22, 2018)


National: Supreme Court Invalidates Security Law; AMLO Announces National Peace and Security Plan 2018-2024

November 27, 2018

LawPhoto @ Animal Politico

On November 15th, with a vote of nine ministers in favor and one against, the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation (SCJN in its Spanish acronym) rejected as unconstitutional the Internal Security Law (LSI in its Spanish acronym) in force since December 21st, 2017.

The law, which sought to regulate the participation of the armed forces in tasks of security and combating crime at the national level, was approved by the previous Congress with the support of the government of Enrique Peña Nieto.

During the vote, the nine ministers of the SCJN who spoke in favor of the invalidation did so with different arguments.

Minister Fernando Franco said that, “the Internal Security Law establishes a link with the National Security Law, as if it were one more on this issue, in addition to providing for some public safety activities. (…) The law was issued with the title of Internal Security, which means that the Congress of the Union does not have express powers to legislate, nor can this competence be upheld by National Security.”

Minister Luna considered that “the LSI is unconstitutional due to irregularities in the process of formulation and approval in Congress, which was done hastily such that some deputies and senators could not even know the ruling to analyze it.”

Regarding this issue, according to the BBC, President-elect Lopez Obrador mentioned several times during his election campaign that if he won the race, he would withdraw the military from the public security tasks they carry out. He reneged on this when elected togovernment, recognizing that “the truth is there is a lot of rot in the policing bodies.”

The “National Plan for Peace and Security 2018-2024” of the president-elect has as its main proposal the creation of a National Guard, which would be composed of between 120 and 200 thousand members. The first 50 thousand are expected to be in operation in 2021, and would be formed by units of the military, naval and federal police. Then, by the military of the Army and the Navy, and finally by the convocation that seeks the integration of up to 50 thousand young people. For its equipment, deployment and operation, it will have its own budget, as do the Army, the Air Force and the Navy.

As soon as this plan was presented, it began to be questioned by different human rights organizations. For example, Amnesty International considered that Lopez Obrador’s plan is “worrying”, as it “essentially repeats the failed militarized security model”, which has allowed serious human rights violations to be committed at the hands of the armed forces.

For more information in Spanish:

ONU-DH pide el retiro completo de las Fuerzas Armadas de seguridad pública (Proceso, 16 de noviembre de 2018)

La Suprema Corte declara inconstitucional la Ley de Seguridad Interior (Proceso, 15 de noviembre de 2018)

Corte invalida Ley de Seguridad por el riesgo que implica convertir a militares en policías (Animal Político, 15 de noviembre de 2018)

Plan de AMLO contradice recomendaciones internacionales para México de retirar el Ejército y fortalecer la policía civil (Animal Político, 15 de noviembre de 2018)

Presidencia de AMLO en México: 5 puntos clave del Plan Nacional de Paz y Seguridad de López Obrador para combatir la violencia y pacificar el país (BBC, 15 de noviembre de 2018)

Organizaciones de DH celebran anulación de LSI (La Jornada, 15 de noviembre de 2018)

Sedena, pilar de la estrategia de seguridad de Lopez Obrador (Proceso, 14 de noviembre de 2018)

For more information from SIPAZ:

National: CNDH Asks SCJN to Declare Interior Security Law Unconstitutional (November 7th, 2018)

National: Reactions to Minister for Supreme Court’s Proposal on Interior Security Law
(November 7th, 2018)

National: AMLO “The Army and the Navy will continue on the streets in internal public security tasks” (September 15, 2018)

National: Two Judges Declare Interior Security Law Unconstitutional (May 24th, 2018)

Chiapas: Organizations injunction on Interior Security Law (April 2nd, 2018)

National: EPN Enacts Interior Security Law. CNDH Declares it Unconstitutional
(January 14th, 2018)

Nacional: Senado aprueba Ley de seguridad interior (December 16th, 2017)

Nacional: Ante rechazo a la Ley de Seguridad Interior, EPN pide ampliar “los espacios de diálogo y acercamiento con las distintas organizaciones de la sociedad civil” (December 11th, 2017)

National: Interior Security Law Passed amidst Protests (December 7th, 2017)